Nutritional Composition and Quality of Five Poultry Species in the Loess Plateau Region of China
Black Chicken, Guinea Fowl and Royal Chicken are precious and rare poultry species in the Loess Plateau region of China, but little is known about their nutritional composition and quality, especially Inosine MonoPhosphate (IMP) content and change in it. IMP is very important for chicken flavor, so the study aimed to analyze the generate nutritional composition and quality of information regarding these three important poultry species and the IMP content and change through comparing them with White Cock Chicken and Yellow Chicken, so as to fill the gap of information mainly about IMP for the three precious and rare poultry species. The composition in terms of fatty acid, amino acid, and the content of IMP and its change were analyzed. The results showed that the IMP content of Black Chicken, Guinea Fowl, Royal Chicken were significantly higher than that of White Cock Chicken and Yellow Chicken (p < 0.05), so the flavor of Black Chicken, Guinea Fowl, Royal Chicken were better than that of White Cock Chicken and Yellow Chicken. It’s worth noting that at 4℃, IMP content increased at first and then reduced over time and reached to the peak at eighth hour. Thus, it would be better to eat chicken after refrigeration for 8 h at 4℃. Five poultry species showed appropriate amounts of n-6 fatty acids (37.02–45.91%) and high quality proteins, n-3/n-6 ratio was ranged from 0.17 to 0.32. Furthermore, comparison of levels of amino acids in the species with the recommended levels showed that the essential amino acids in five species were excellent.